Research Article

Helping asthmatic children through bonding therapy

Antonio Madrid* and Nicholas Bennett

Published: 05 February, 2021 | Volume 5 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-007

Disruptions in Maternal-infant Bonding are shown to be the mediating variable between maternal distress and the subsequent expression of childhood asthma. When the mothers’ bonding is repaired, their children’s asthmatic symptoms diminish or remit. This study evaluated 16 asthmatic children before and after their mothers were treated with Bonding Therapy. Fourteen improved on 11 measures, including reduction in the STEP classification system and medication use. Thirteen children were able to stop all medications. Surprisingly, all mothers scores on the Beck Depression Inventory improved through Bonding Therapy, suggesting that impaired bonding can lead to maternal depression or even Postpartum Depression. The link between bonding disruptions and airway inflammation are discussed. Bonding Therapy is described.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.aaai.1001022 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


  1. Lara M, Rosenbaum S, Rachelefsky G, Nicholas W, Morton SC, et al. Improving childhood asthma outcomes in the United States: A blueprint for policy action. Pediatrics. 2002; 109: 919-930. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11986457/
  2. Akinbami LJ, Moorman JE, Garbe PL, Sondik EJ. Status of childhood asthma in the United States, 1980–2007. Pediatrics. 2009; 123 (Suppl3): 131-145. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19221156/
  3. DeFrances CJ, Cullen KA, Kozak LJ. National hospital discharge survey: 2005 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. Vital Health Statistics. 2007; 13: 1-209. PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18350768
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: Asthma in the U.S. 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/VitalSigns/pdf/2011-05-vitalsigns.pdf
  5. Martin M. Asthma epidemic impacts Sonoma County. Sonoma Medicine. 2004; 55. http://www.scma.org/magazine/?vol=55&num=1
  6. Yatsenko O, Pizano J, Nikolaidis A. Revisiting maternal–infant bonding’s effects on asthma: A brief history. Cogent Psychol. 2016; 3: 1161267.
  7. Mrazek DA, Klinnert MD, Mrazek P, Macey T. Early asthma onset: Consideration of parenting issues. Journal of the of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1991; 30: 277-282. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2016232/
  8. Klinnert MD, Nelson HS, Price MR, Adinoff AD, Leung DY, et al. Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: Predictors from infancy. Pediatrics. 2001; 108: E69. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11581477/
  9. Kero J, Gissler M, Gronlund MM, Kero P, Koskinen P, et al. Mode of delivery and asthma--Is there a connection? Pediatric Res. 2002; 52: 6-11. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12084840/
  10. Roduit C, Scholtens S, de Jongste JC, Gerritsen J, Postma DS, et al. Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section. Thorax. 2009; 64: 107-113. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19052046/
  11. Annesi-Maesano I, Moreau D, Strachan D. in utero and perinatal complications preceding asthma. Allergy. 2001; 56: 491-497. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11421892/
  12. Nafstad P, Samuelsen SO, Irgens LM, Bjerkedal T. Pregnancy complications and the risk of asthma among Norwegians born between 1967 and 1993. Eur J Epidemiol. 2003; 18: 755-761. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12974550/
  13. Kozyrskyj AL, Mai XM, McGrath P, HayGlass KT, Becker AB, et al. Continued exposure to maternal distress in early life increases the risk of childhood asthma. Am J Respiratory Crit Care Med. 2008; 77: 142-147.
  14. Lange NE, Bunyavanich S, Silberg JL, Canino G, Rosner BA, et al. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 127: 734-740. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21194742/
  15. Mantymaa M, Puura K, Luoma I, Salmelin R, Davis H, et al. Infant-mother interaction as a predictor of child's chronic health problems. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2003; 29: 181-191. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12752609
  16. Wright RJ, Cohen S, Carey V, Weiss ST, Gold DR. Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy: A prospective birth-cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002; 165: 358-365. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11818321/
  17. Wright RJ, Visness CH, Calatroni A, Grayson MH, Gold DR, et al. Prenatal maternal stress and cord blood innate and adaptive cytokine responses in an inner-city cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010; 182: 25-33. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20194818/
  18. Cassibba R, van Ijzendoorn MH, Bruno S, Coppola G. Attachment of mothers and children with recurrent asthmatic bronchitis. J Asthma. 2004; 41: 419-431.
  19. Klaus MH, Kennell JH. Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby. 1976.
  20. Feinberg S. Degree of maternal infant bonding and its relationship to pediatric asthma and family environments (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco, CA. 1998.
  21. Schwartz M. Incidence of events associated with maternal-infant bonding disturbances in a pediatric asthma population (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Rosebridge Graduate School, Walnut Creek, CA. 1988.
  22. Pennington D. Events associated with maternal-infant bonding deficits and severity of pediatric asthma (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco, CA. 1991.
  23. Madrid A, Ames R, Skolek S, Brown G. Does maternal-infant bonding therapy improve breathing in asthmatic children? J Prenatal Perinatal Psychol Health. 2000; 15: 90-112.
  24. Madrid A, Ames R, Horner D, Brown G, Navarrette L. Improving asthma symptoms in children by repairing the maternal-infant bond. J Prenatal Perinatal Psychol Health. 2004; 18: 221-231.
  25. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical anual of mental disorders (4th ed, Text Revision). Washington DC. 2000.
  26. Martinez F. Development of wheezing disorders and asthma in preschool children. Pediatrics. 2002; 109: 362-367. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11826251/
  27. Kozyrskyj AL, Mustard CA, Becker AB. Childhood wheezing syndromes and healthcare data. Pediatric Pulmonol. 2003; 36: 131-136.
  28. Brown G, Pennington D, Madrid A. Maternal-Infant Bonding Survey. Unpublished survey. 1999.
  29. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NAEPP expert report: Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma (NIH Publication No. 02-5074). 2003. http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/_static/resources/2100.pdf
  30. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961; 4: 561-571. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13688369/
  31. Madrid A. Helping children with asthma by repairing maternal-infant bonding problems. Am J Clin Hypno. 2005/06 48: 199-211. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16482847/
  32. Madrid A, Skolek S, Shapiro F. Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR. Clinical Case Series. 2006; 5: 271-286.
  33. Mead V. A new model for understanding the role of environmental factors in the origins of chronic illness. Med Hypotheses. 2004; 63: 1035-1046. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15504572/
  34. Milam J, McConnell R, Yao L, Berhane K, Jerrett M, et al. Parental stress and childhood wheeze in a prospective cohort study. J Asthma. 2008; 45: 319-323. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18446597/

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?